Carrageenan is extracted from a moss. Sulfated polymers are galactose and anhydrogalactose.
With the help of potassium salt, carrageenan is divided into soluble (Landa carrageenan) and potassium-precipitating or potassium-sensitive (kappa carrageenan). There is also a calcium-sensitive component, which is called iota carrageenan. Addition of calcium and potassium can cause rapid formation of carrageenan gel.
Kappa and Landau varieties are important in the food industry.

Features Kappa Landa Iota
Reaction with protein Reaction with kappa casein Reaction with kappa casein
Solution in hot water (80 °C) Soluble Soluble Soluble
Solution in cold water (20 °C) With Sodium ion; Soluble – With calcium ion, limited potassium swelling Soluble With Sodium ion; soluble- with calcium; solid emulsion thixotropic liquid
Gel Formation Forms a strong gel with potassium ion Forms no gel Forms Gel with Calcium ion
Returnable Gel The gel cannot be returned Forms no gel Gel is returnable
Gel Texture Fragile Forms no gel Elastic

Carrageenan applications in dairy:

  • Carrageenan is added to cocoa milk to prevent the deposition of cocoa.
  • anda Carragarin is used to produce low-fat sauces and to prevent oil absorption by frying products.
  • Combining kappa and landa carrageenan to create a gel with creamy texture or suspension
  • Increased concentration and gelation in creamy desserts and mousse
  • Improving texture and reducing viscosity during the processing of dairy products using iota carrageenan with modified starch

The use of carrageenan in jelly desserts and cake glitters:

  • The strength and fragility of kappa carrageenan jellies
  • Flexibility, adhesion and non-synergy of iota Carrageenan jellies
  • In carrageenan-made jellies, the product gives a similar appearance to gelatin-based jellies
  • Faster gelling and better stability at ambient temperature are also desirable features of this jelly.

The use of carrageenan in meat products:

  • Moisture retention and elevation of water holding capacity
  • Increased baking efficiency
  • Better slicing
  • Better mouth feel

The use of carrageenan in beverages:

  • Beer Transparency